Keys


Key to families within the
Auchenorrhyncha

This is a modifed version of the key found in Unwin, D. (2001) A Key to the Families of British Bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera). Field Studies Council AIDGAP Guides 269.

1. Pronotum large and extended backwards (a), head and front of pronotum forming an almost vertical angle
.....Membracidae (2 species)
- Pronotum not extended backwards
.....2
Membracidae
(Membracidae)
2. Very large (c 20 mm), front femur swollen and much wider than mid and hind femora (a)
.....Cicadidae (1 species, Cicadetta montana - extremely rare and possibly extinct in UK)
- Not more than 12 mm in length and usually much less, front femur usually not thicker than mid and hind femora
.....3
Cicadidae
(Cicadidae)
3. Hind tibia with large spine (a), antenna inserted below the eye, with the lower margin of the eye hollowed out to accomodate it (b)
.....Delphacidae (76 species)
- Not as above
.....4
Delphacidae
(Delphacidae)
Delphacidae
(Delphacidae)
4. Forewings very broad near the centre with numerous cross-veins throughout
.....Issidae (2 species)
- Not as above
.....5
Issidae
(Issidae)
5. Base of forewings covered by tegula (a), (b)
.....6
- Base of forewings not covered by a tegula
.....7
6. Scutellum with 3 or 5 keels (a), forewings clear and membranous with conspicuous veins
.....Cixiidae (12 species)
- Scutellum without keels. forewings hardened and covered with fine punctures
.....Tettigometridae (1 species, Tettigometra impressopunctata)
Cixiidae
(Cixiidae)
Tettigometridae
(Tettigometridae)
7. Hind tibia with one to three rows of spines along entire length (a)

(NOTE:  these are poorly developed in Ledrinae and Ulopinae - see key below)
.....Cicadellidae (291 species)
- Hind tibia with two stout spines on the outer edge and several smaller spines at the tip (b)
.....8
Cicadellidae
(Cicadellidae)
8. Forewing red and black, head narrower than pronotum
.....Cercopidae (1 species, Cercopis vulnerata)
- Forewing not red and black, head as broad as pronotum
.....Aphrophoridae (9 species)
Cercopidae
(Cercopidae)
Aphrophoridae
(Aphrophoridae)


Key to subfamilies within the Cicadellidae (leafhoppers)

This is a modifed version of the key found in Biedermann, R. & Niedringhaus, R. (2009) The Plant- and Leafhoppers of Germany – Identification key to all species. Wissenschaftlich Akademischer Buchvertrieb-Fründ, Scheeßel. 

1. Pronotum with prominent ear-like projections (a), hind tibia strongly flattened (b), large greyish species (13-18 mm)
.....Ledrinae (1 species, Ledra aurita)
- Pronotum without such projections, hind tibia not strongly flattened, size < 12 mm
.....2
Ledrinae
(Ledrinae)

Ledrinae
(Ledrinae)
2. Forewings covered with large distinct punctures, hind tibia with poorly-developed spines (a)
.....Ulopinae (2 species)
- Forewings not distinctly punctured, hind tibiae with well-developed spines
.....3
Ulopinae
(Ulopinae)

Ulopinae
(Ulopinae)
3. Always macropterous (fully-winged), with veins of the forewing not branched in the basal two-thirds. Small and delicate species, size < 5.0 mm
.....Typhlocybinae (101 species)
Typhlocybinae
(Typhlocybinae)

- Macropterous or brachypterous (partly-winged), if macropterous then veins of forewing branching in the basal two-thirds

.....4
4. Two prominent keels on the face and vertex, joining to form an X shape
.....Megophthalminae (2 species)
- Not as above
.....5
Megophthalminae
(Megophthalminae)

Megophthalminae
(Megophthalminae)
5. Vertex greatly expanded (more than twice as long as pronotum), enclosing the eyes and with a prominent longitudinal keel (a)
.....Dorycephalinae (1 species, Eupelix cuspidata)
- Not as above
.....6
Dorycephalinae
(Dorycephalinae)

6. Ocelli on vertex or transition between vertex and face (a)
.....7
- Ocelli clearly on face (b) and never visible from above
.....9
(NOTE: Ocelli are often very difficult to see in photos)
Deltocephalinae Idiocerinae

7. Face bulbous and swollen, large species (> 5 mm) and usually brightly-coloured. Ocelli on vertex (a)
.....Cicadellinae (5 species)
- Not as above
.....8
Cicadellinae
(Cicadellinae)

Cicadellinae
(Cicadellinae)

8. Distinct keels above the bases of the antennae (a), ocelli on vertex (just behind the front margin)
.....Aphrodinae (14 species)
- Supraantennal keels absent, ocelli on the transition between the vertex and face
.....Deltocephalinae (110 species)
Aphrodinae
(Aphrodinae)

Deltocephalinae
(Deltocephalinae)
9. Forewings with a wide membrane at tip (a), two prominent sutures on face running from base of antennae almost to ocelli (b)
.....Idiocerinae (21 species)
Forewings with a narrow membrane at tip, face without two such sutures 
.....10
Idiocerinae
(Idiocerinae)

Idiocerinae
(Idiocerinae)
10. Sides of pronotum as long as posterior margin of eye, tip of mid and hind femora bears 3 or 5 spines (a)
.....Iassinae (4 species)
Sides of pronotum shorter than posterior margin of eye, tip of mid and hind femora without spines
.....11
Iassinae
(Iassinae)
Iassinae
(Iassinae)
11. Supraantennal keels reaching the eye (a)
.....Macropsinae (23 species)
Supraantennal keels not reaching the eye (b)
.....Agallinae (7 species)
Macropsinae
(Macropsinae)

Agallinae
(Agallinae)